虚拟语气表示说话人的主观愿望、猜测建议或与事实不符的假设。虚拟语气可分为三种：(1)一般虚拟 (2)混合虚拟 (3)特殊句式
一.一般虚拟的构成：(省略if, 要将should/were/had 提到句首)
(1). 对现在的虚拟：If +S.+ did/were sth., S.+ would/could/should +do
If I had time, I would attend the meeting.
If I were you, I would seize the chance to go abroad.
(2) 对过去的虚拟：If +S.+had + p.p, S.+ would/could/should have + p.p
If you had taken my advice, you would not have failed in the exam.
If + S. + did/were/should do/were to do, S + would/should/could do sth.
If you came tomorrow, we would have the meeting.
If it were to rain tomorrow, the sports meeting would be put off.
If he should not come tomorrow, we should put off the meeting till next day.
注意：Had we made good preparations, we might have succeeded.
Had it not rained, we would have gone out for a walk.
Were I you, I would not do such a thing.
(1) 不同时间的虚拟：If he had listened to me, he would not be in trouble now.
If he had told me yesterday, I should know what to do now.
He could have passed the exam, but he wasn’t careful enough.
You should have come earlier, the bus left a moment ago.
(1).suggest, advise, recommend, propose, order, command, request, require, demand + that –clause (should do/do )
He suggested that we (should) save money for the future.(insist的判断)
(2) It is suggested/advised/ordered/requested/required that –clause(should do/do)(主语从句)
(3) My advice/suggestion/request/requirement is that-clause (should do /do) (表语从句)
His suggestion/advice/request/requirement that –clause(should do/do ) is.. (同位语从句)
(4) It is natural/necessary/strange that-clause (should do/do)表惊奇、怀疑、惋惜、不满、理应如此等。
It’s strange that he should have missed the train. (表竟然)
It is important that we should learn from others.(表理应如此)
It is a pity that he should not go with us.(表惊讶、不满)
(5)wish + that clause (did/were 与现在相反)
wish + that clause (would/could/might + do与将来相反)
wish + that clause ( had done 与过去相反)
I wish I could go with them tomorrow.
I wish I had never met him.
(6) It is (high/about) time + clause (did, should do )
It is (high/about) time we went home.
(7) would rather + clause (did 与现在或将来相反);(had done 与过去相反)
I would rather you came tomorrow. I would rather you hadn’t told her the news.
(8) If only + clause ( did/were与现在相反) ((would/could/might + do与将来相反)
( had done 与过去相反) “要是。。。就好了“
If only he would come tomorrow! If only I had taken her advice!
If only I were ten years younger!
(9) as if + clause (did/were 与现在相反) (would/could/might + do与将来相反)
( had done 与过去相反)
She treats Kate as if she were her own daughter.
They talked as if they had been friends for years.
(10) would like/was/were to have done something
I would like to have attended the party, but one of my friends came to see me.
(11) without/but for + n.= if it were not for +n./if it hadn’t been for + n. (otherwise后从句同)
I would not have passed the exam without your help.(=if it hadn’t been for your help)
1. The plant is dead. I ___more water.
A. will give B. would have given C. must give D. should have given
2. I insist that a doctor ___ immediately.
A. has been sent for B. send for C. will be sent for D. be sent for
3. If you the doctors advice, you would have already recovered.
A. follow B. followed C. would follow D. had followed
4. I wish I ___ you yesterday.
A. seen B. did see C. had seen D. were to see
5. What would you have done last night, if you to write your homework.
A. hadn’t B. haven’t had C. didn’t have D. hadn’t had
6. ---Did you catch the plane?
-----No, if I had hurried, I .
A. would B. would have C. could D. did
7. Without electricity human life ____ quite different today.
A. is B. will be C. would have been D. would be
8. --- Shall we go skating or stay at home? ---Which____ do yourself?
A. do you rather B. would you rather C. will you rather D. should you rather
9. --- We could have walked to the station, it was so near.
---Yes, a taxi ___ at all necessary.
A. wasn’t B. hadn’t been C. wouldn’t D. won’t be
10. If you early tomorrow morning, you would be there by noon.
A. have started B. were start C. were to start D. had started
11. Tom ought not to ____ me your secret, but he meant no harm.
A. have told B. tell C. be telling D. having told
12. ---If he ____, he ___ that food.
--- Luckily he was sent to hospital immediately.
A. was warned, would not take B. had been warned, would not have taken
B. would be warned, had not taken D. would have been warned, had not taken
13. ---- Are you thinking about going to Dalian for the vacation?
-----No, but if I time, I very glad to go there.
A. have, will be B, had had, would have been
C. had, would be D. had had, would be
14. If you George, would you please tell him to ring me?
A. saw B. were to C. have seen D. see
15. You didn’t let me drive. If we ____ in turn, you ____ so tired.
A. drove, didn’t get B. drove, wouldn’t get
C. were driving, wouldn’t get D. had driven, wouldn’t have got
16. I am sure he hasn’t sent the letter. If he it, I .
A. sent, got B. sent, have got C. sent, would go D. had sent, would have got.
17. The two strangers talked as if they ____ friends for years.
A. should be B. would be C. have been D. had been
18. Jane’ pale face suggested that he ____ ill, and her parents suggested that she ____ a medical examination.
A. be, should have B. was, have C. should be, had D. was, has
19. _____ it rain tomorrow, we would have to put off the visit to the Yangpu Bridge.
A. Were B. Should C. Would D. Will
20. When he was there, he ____ go to that coffee shop at the corner after work every day.
A. would B. should C. had better D. might
21.____ for the free tickets, _____ I would not have gone to the films so often.
A. If it is not B. Were it not C. Had it not been D. If they were not
22. There was a lot of fun at yesterday’s party. You ____ come, but why didn’t you?
A. must have B. should C. need have D. ought to have
23. I should have been there, but I ___ not find the time.
A. would B. could C. might D. should
24. If he ____ quietly as the doctor instructed, he wouldn’t suffer so much now.
A. lies B. lay C. had lain D. should lie
25. How I wish every family ___ a large house with a garden.
A. has B. had C. will have D. had had
26. I thought you ____ like something to read , so I have brought you some books.
A. might B. may C. could D. must
27. There was plenty of time. She ____.
A. needn’t have hurried B. couldn’t have hurried C. must not hurry D. mustn’t have hurried
28. It was necessary that he about what had happened.
A. be told B. was told C. should tell D. tell
29. It was strange that we short of water in the country where it was always raining.
A. are B. be C. should be D. both B and C
30. You any difficulty now, if you had made a more careful plan.
A. won’t meet with B. would not meet with
C. would not have met with D. have not met with
31. .He did his best in everything, he would not have seen what he was.
A. and B. but C. otherwise D. but that
32. ---You should have gone to the show with us yesterday. It is very good.
----I wished I , but I was busy with my report.
A. had B. did C. would have D. were
33. ---- Would you have told him the answer, if possible?
-----Yes, I would have, but I very busy.
A. had been B. were C. was D. would be
34. If only I his advice, but I am sorry I did.
A. would not take B. would not have taken
C. did not take D. had not taken
35. It is time we to the concert. A. went B, go C. will go D. should go
36. ---I’d like to get a job in that computer shop.
---I would much rather you ___at home and ___ care of the children.
A. stay, take B. stayed, took C. should stay, took D. stayed, take
37. If we ___ birth control earlier, China ___ such a large population.
A. had begun, wouldn’t have B. had begun, wouldn’t have had
C. began, wouldn’t have D. should begin, wouldn’t have had
38. They treats the granny as if she ____ their own mother. A> is B. was C. were D. had been
39. ---What do you think of the food here? ---Oh, wonderful! WE ___ a better place.
A. won’t find B. mustn’t have found C. can’t find D. couldn’t have found
40. We ___ last night, but we went to the concert instead.
A. must have studied B. might study C. should have studied D. would study
41. It was suggested that the match ___ because of the weather.
A. would be put off B. should put off C. must be put off D. be put off
42.If only I ___ to your advice and returned home in time.
A. listened B. had listened C. would listen D. would have listened
43. ___, there would be no industry.
A. Without steel B. If there is not steel C. There would be no steel D. If there was not steel
44.---Would you like to go to the cinema tonight? ---I wish I ___, but I ___ study for a test.
A. had, will have to B. would, had to C. did, have to D. could, have to
45. He spoke as if he ___ in space at that moment.
A. had walked B. were walking C. would walk D. walked
46. I would do it in a different way ___ it.
A. were I do B. were I to do C. should I to do D. had I done
47. But for his help, they ___ over the mountain in such a short time.
A. had not run B. have not run C. couldn’t have run D. can’t have run
48. There is nothing left. I wish I ___ so much money on clothes.
A. haven’t spent B. hadn’t spent C. couldn’t have spent D. not spend
49. ---Why are you late? ---I got caught in traffic; otherwise I ___ here on time.
A. would have been B. was C. were D. had been
50. ---What happened to the trees planted last spring?
---The trees ___ well. But they didn’t take good care of them.
A. would grow B. shall have grown C. would have grow D. might grow
51. He would have died ___ that doctor.
A. hadn’t it been B. it id had been C. were it for D. had it not been for
52. What would you do if you __ a house on fire? A. saw B. see C. have seen D. had seen
1-5 DDDCD 6-10 BDBAC 11-15 ABCAD
16-20 DDBBA 21-25 CDBCB 26-30 AAADB
31-35 CCCDA 36-40BACDC 41-45DBADB