Step 1: Before you read
Please go over the word list for this module, paying attention to the pronunciation of the word, the relationship between its pronunciation and its spelling.
Step 2: While you read
Cut/ the sentences into thought groups, blacken the predicates, underline the useful expressions and darken the connectives.
Step 3: After you read
Copy all the useful expressions into your Expression Book. You may make sentences with these expressions.
Step 4: Talking about the Industrial Revolution
A: Do you know that, in Europe, in the second half of the eighteenth century, there was an important change in society?
B: Yes, I do. That change is called the ―Industrial Revolution‖. A: Could you tell me more about that?
B: I am glad to. Until the second half of the eighteenth century Europe had been a farming society.
A: How did factories appear?
B: With the Industrial Revolution, factories appeared and mass production became possible for the first time. A: Where were factories built? B: They were built in towns.
A: Did the population of towns and cities greatly increase? Greatly? B: Yes, it did.
A: How did these changes become possible?
B: They became possible because of inventions such as the steam engine.
A: When was it invented? B: It was invented in 1769. A: Who was it invented by?
B: It was invented by James Watt.
A: Was it the main energy source during the Industrial Revolution, wasn’t it? B: Yes, it was.
A: Where was the steam engine first used?
B: It was first used in mines, but it was soon used in factories and on the railways.
A: I guess during the Industrial Revolution, factory owners became more powerful than land owners, didn’t they? B: Yes, they did.
A: Where did the factory workers come?
B: Thousands of people left the countryside to work in the city. A: What were their lives like?
B: Often, factory workers lived in poor and crowded conditions. A: When and how was the Industrial Revolution developed?
B: From 1830 to the early 20th century, the Industrial Revolution spread through Europe and the US and then to other countries such as Japan.